The Source of the Universe

Introduction

Finding a theory of everything (ToE) that harmonizes the stochastic, microscopic quantum world with the deterministic, perceivable universe poses one of the major challenges in modern physics. Numerous ToE candidates have been brought forward in the past, most popular the diverse flavours of supergravity-, string- and M-theory. However, all these theories are based on purely speculative assumptions (e.g. the 11 dimensions proposed in M-theory), have questionable predictive power and limited theoretical ground. These ToE candidates further suffer from their immense mathematical complexity and the requirement for finest parameter tuning in order to mimic only selected aspects of quantum mechanics (QM) and Einstein's general relativity theory (GRT). Unsurprisingly, none of the existing ToE candidates is even close to being experimentally verifiable with physical methods of today or the foreseeable future. Expanding and refining existing ToE proposals is unlikely to overcome these profound obstacles, but rather prone to ever increasing mathematical complexity and therefore room for pure speculation.  In principle, a ToE should not only explain gravity and quantum mechanics out of one single model, but every physical phenomenon in the universe. Several authors have suspected a fundamental relationship among at first sight very different domains: Intelligent decision making ,  the mysterious quantum measurement process and gravitation in terms of Einstein's general relativity theory (GRT). Consequently, all three of the aforementioned domains might represent a valid entry point to some kind of theory of everything (ToE).  However, so far, the problem of emergent reality has been tackled almost exclusively from the quantum perspective, while the other two, possible routes were largely ignored. In this work, I present GenI , a swarm-like stochastic model inspired by artificial intelligence (AI) that transcends the gap between GRT and QM and unlocks a completely new path towards a ToE. GenI operates on a swarm-like construct and implements a competition of ideas resulting in a rather chaotic selection process directed by a small set of simple rules. Remarkably, the probability distribution for idea selection only depends on the system's state at the beginning and precisely matches quantum measurement predictions. At the same time, the dynamics of the GenI process locally follow geodetic lines in a four dimensional Riemann space whose metric fully satisfies the requirements of Einstein's field equation. Besides the demonstrated theoretical validity, its mathematical simplicity, robustness and possible experimental accessibility distinguish GenI from all established ToE candidates.  The GenI model proposes a simple and elegant solution to the GRT vs QM dilemma and thereby unveils a fundamentally different perspective onto our universe.

Discussion

A ToE that unifies QM and GRT has been a long-sought goal in modern physics. Previous approaches almost exclusively focused on QM as a potential ToE entry point. This was probably due to a wide agreement within the physics community that QM would likely represent the universe's most basic operation principle and should consequently imply GRT as well as any other physical law. In this work, I took a radically different approach by developing a theoretical model for intelligent decision making with the principle aim to better understand intelligent behaviour and consciousness as well as to advance AI implementation. To my own surprise, the presented GenI decision making model strongly suggests a fundamental relationship between intelligence, QM and GRT. More specifically, all three domains simply represent different aspects of a previously unknown, swarm-like stochastic process operating at the very basis of our universe. Gravitation, space and time as formulated in GRT are thereby specific traits of the 'inner' view of the swarm itself, while QM describes the outer view in which the 'inner' parameters of space and time are irrelevant. Hence, GRT cannot be directly derived from QM (or vice versa), as unsuccessfully tried in the past. Both theories rather represent different perspectives onto the same, more fundamental principle formalized in GenI. Compared to the extremely complex supergravity-, string- and M-theories aiming at explaining gravity and spacetime from the quantum perspective, the simplistic GenI model is profoundly superior. It necessitates only a small set of simple assumptions and rules and does not require any further fine-tuning of model parameters to function robustly. As its underlying mathematics are basic and straight-forward, GenI is also highly preferable according to ancient Occam's razor principle. Finally, GenI could be readily examinable experimentally from various angles (see below). Therefore, my work has far-ranging, at first sight likely irritating consequences for our understanding of what makes up the universe and how it evolves. The perceivable universe appears not to be developing according to a Schroedinger equation, as usually assumed in modern physics without any explicit justification. It rather develops according to a QM measurement process, i.e. its wave function is collapsing. Importantly, this collapse is independent of any external observer or environment, as GenI's basic P-swarm process is directly self referential. The swarm is capable to observe itself, define its targets and thereby conduct the wave function collapse completely on its own. The particular role of gravitation in this wave function collapse is in determining its inner dynamical rules rather than being its initializer. GenI may well allow abandoning dark matter, dark energy and/or gravitons, all of which look merely like artefacts of an incomplete theory and hence still resist any experimental confirmation. Similarly, the mysterious big bang may simply resolve into a change in perspective. As has been shown, the GenI process results in a singularity when reaching its very final decision. However, even the slightest change in perspective immediately triggers swarm movement, thereby creating a new spacetime metric. So the process jumps out of the singularity and starts running again. Possible causes for such a perspective change remain to be explained. From a more general viewpoint, the GenI model can help to better understand processes that may at first sight look completely random. This is true not only for the measurement process in QM as shown here, but also for the evolution of live by genetic variation and subsequent selection, the decision making in social teams and many more. In all of these areas, GenI should allow predictions readily accessible with existing technologies. Finally, provided the GenI process indeed underlies the fuzzy concepts of consciousness and intelligent behaviour, these phenomena may be much more common in our universe than we expected until today. More recently, the subject of consciousness has indeed become the focus of scientists who discuss its significance in the universe within multidisciplinary working groups. It is possible that consciousness, if properly defined, is a fundamental property of all matter and not, as previously thought, a phenomenon that only arises from its sufficiently complex accumulation virtually out of nothing. Common to all these initiatives is the lack of a verifiable mathematical model consistent with existing physical theories that could solidly support such a thesis. This work describes such a model that not only has the potential to reconcile the two basic physical theories, but also takes the topic of intelligent decision-making centre stage. GenI describes a fundamental change of perspective not only for physics. It basically means that gravity is nothing else than a side effect of an evolutionary selection process. Conversely, a strong selection pressure of biological systems should show up in statistical distortions, which can not be explained by known natural laws. ``It will need a profound change of viewpoint, which makes it hard to speculate on the specific nature of the change. Moreover, it will undoubtedly look crazy!'' suspected Penrose 1995 in 'shadows of the mind' when reasoning about possible approaches towards a truly generalizable ToE. In 'What Remains To Be Discovered' John Maddox highlighted 1998 ``As with aether, serious people hunt for the constituents of the missing mass without acknowledging that the whole idea may be no more than a sign that present understanding of the universe is incomplete, as was Maxwell's electromagnetism without relativity. (...) My hunch is that the future will follow the past in revealing a new nest of Russian dolls to be unscrewed.'' And 2007 in 'THE ROAD TO REALITY' Penrose realized almost resignedly ``(...) I do not believe that we have yet found the true road to reality''. I do not want to claim yet, that GenI points towards this road to reality. It remains to be demonstrated, for instance, that the beautiful performance of GenI in multiple dimensions gives as well rise to a space time compatible with GRT as has been shown for two degrees of freedom. At least, however, I took the first few humble steps on a path that nobody seriously tried before. We will see where it leads us.

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